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在CentOS 5.7上安装和使用OpenVZ

时间:2017-05-28 12:13来源:linux.it.net.cn 作者:IT

在CentOS 5.7上安装和使用OpenVZ

在本教程中,我将介绍如何为OpenVZ准备CentOS 5.7服务器。 使用OpenVZ,您可以在同一硬件上创建多个虚拟专用服务器(VPS),类似于Xen和Linux Vserver项目。 OpenVZ是Virtuozzo的开源分支,Virtuozzo是许多提供虚拟服务器的提供商所使用的商业虚拟化解决方案。 OpenVZ内核补丁是根据GPL许可证授权的,用户级工具是QPL许可证。

这是一个实践指南; 它不包括理论背景。 他们在网络上的许多其他文档中被处理。

本文档不附带任何形式的保证! 我想说,这不是设立这样一个制度的唯一办法。 实现这一目标有很多方法,但这是我所采取的方式。 我不会保证这将为您工作!

1安装OpenVZ

为了安装OpenVZ,我们需要将OpenVZ存储库添加到yum:

cd /etc/yum.repos.d
wget http://download.openvz.org/openvz.repo
rpm –import http://download.openvz.org/RPM-GPG-Key-OpenVZ

现在打开openvz.repo …

vi openvz.repo

…并禁用[openvz-kernel-rhel6]存储库( enabled = 0 ),并启用[openvz-kernel-rhel5]存储库( enabled = 1 ):

[...]
# Stable branches

[openvz-kernel-rhel6]
name=OpenVZ RHEL6-based kernel
#baseurl=http://download.openvz.org/kernel/branches/rhel6-2.6.32/current/
mirrorlist=http://download.openvz.org/kernel/mirrors-rhel6-2.6.32
enabled=0
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=http://download.openvz.org/RPM-GPG-Key-OpenVZ

[openvz-kernel-rhel5]
name=OpenVZ RHEL5-based kernel
#baseurl=http://download.openvz.org/kernel/branches/rhel5-2.6.18/current/
mirrorlist=http://download.openvz.org/kernel/mirrors-rhel5-2.6.18
enabled=1
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=http://download.openvz.org/RPM-GPG-Key-OpenVZ

[openvz-kernel-rhel4]
name=OpenVZ RHEL4-based kernel
#baseurl=http://download.openvz.org/kernel/branches/rhel4-2.6.9/current/
mirrorlist=http://download.openvz.org/kernel/mirrors-rhel4-2.6.9
enabled=0
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=http://download.openvz.org/RPM-GPG-Key-OpenVZ
[...]

存储库包含几个不同的OpenVZ内核(您可以在这里找到有关它们的更多详细信息: http : //wiki.openvz.org/Kernel_flavors )。 命令

yum search ovzkernel

显示可用的内核:

[root@server1 yum.repos.d]# yum search vzkernel

ovzkernel.i686 : Virtuozzo Linux kernel (the core of the Linux operating system)
ovzkernel.x86_64 : Virtuozzo Linux kernel (the core of the Linux operating system)
ovzkernel-PAE.i686 : The Linux kernel compiled for PAE capable machines.
ovzkernel-PAE-devel.i686 : Development package for building kernel modules to match the PAE kernel.
ovzkernel-devel.i686 : Development package for building kernel modules to match the kernel.
ovzkernel-devel.x86_64 : Development package for building kernel modules to match the kernel.
ovzkernel-ent.i686 : The Linux kernel compiled for huge mem capable machines.
ovzkernel-ent-devel.i686 : Development package for building kernel modules to match the ent kernel.
ovzkernel-xen.i686 : The Linux kernel compiled for Xen VM operations
ovzkernel-xen.x86_64 : The Linux kernel compiled for Xen VM operations
ovzkernel-xen-devel.i686 : Development package for building kernel modules to match the kernel.
ovzkernel-xen-devel.x86_64 : Development package for building kernel modules to match the kernel.
[root@server1 yum.repos.d]#

选择其中一个并安装如下:

yum install ovzkernel

如果最后一个命令给出错误,如…

WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/acpi/acpi_memhotplug.ko needs unknown symbol strcpy
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/acpi/acpi_memhotplug.ko needs unknown symbol add_memory
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/acpi/acpi_memhotplug.ko needs unknown symbol swiotlb
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/acpi/acpi_memhotplug.ko needs unknown symbol memory_add_physaddr_to_nid
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/acpi/acpi_memhotplug.ko needs unknown symbol remove_memory
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/acpi/acpi_memhotplug.ko needs unknown symbol strcmp
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/acpi/acpi_memhotplug.ko needs unknown symbol acpi_get_node
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/edac/amd64_edac_mod.ko needs unknown symbol amd_unregister_ecc_decoder
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/edac/amd64_edac_mod.ko needs unknown symbol amd_register_ecc_decoder
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/edac/amd64_edac_mod.ko needs unknown symbol amd_report_gart_errors
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/edac/amd64_edac_mod.ko needs unknown symbol amd_decode_nb_mce
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/cpufreq/freq_table.ko needs unknown symbol strcpy
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/cpufreq/freq_table.ko needs unknown symbol _cpu_pda
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/edac/i7core_edac.ko needs unknown symbol edac_mce_register
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/edac/i7core_edac.ko needs unknown symbol edac_mce_unregister
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/edac/i7core_edac.ko needs unknown symbol __memcpy
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/infiniband/hw/ipath/ib_ipath.ko needs unknown symbol dma_ops
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/infiniband/hw/ipath/ib_ipath.ko needs unknown symbol copy_from_user
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/infiniband/hw/ipath/ib_ipath.ko needs unknown symbol bad_dma_address
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/infiniband/hw/ipath/ib_ipath.ko needs unknown symbol find_first_bit
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/infiniband/hw/ipath/ib_ipath.ko needs unknown symbol strcat
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/infiniband/hw/ipath/ib_ipath.ko needs unknown symbol mem_section
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/infiniband/hw/ipath/ib_ipath.ko needs unknown symbol copy_to_user
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/infiniband/hw/ipath/ib_ipath.ko needs unknown symbol strncpy
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/infiniband/hw/ipath/ib_ipath.ko needs unknown symbol __memcpy
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/infiniband/hw/ipath/ib_ipath.ko needs unknown symbol strcmp
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/infiniband/hw/ipath/ib_ipath.ko needs unknown symbol alloc_pages_current
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/arch/x86_64/kernel/microcode.ko needs unknown symbol copy_from_user
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/arch/x86_64/oprofile/oprofile.ko needs unknown symbol cpu_to_node
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/arch/x86_64/oprofile/oprofile.ko needs unknown symbol copy_from_user
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/arch/x86_64/oprofile/oprofile.ko needs unknown symbol copy_user_generic
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/arch/x86_64/oprofile/oprofile.ko needs unknown symbol profile_pc
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/arch/x86_64/oprofile/oprofile.ko needs unknown symbol copy_to_user
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/arch/x86_64/oprofile/oprofile.ko needs unknown symbol strcmp
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/arch/x86_64/kernel/cpufreq/powernow-k8.ko needs unknown symbol strncmp
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/arch/x86_64/kernel/cpufreq/powernow-k8.ko needs unknown symbol _cpu_pda
WARNING: /lib/modules/2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2/kernel/drivers/pci/hotplug/shpchp.ko needs unknown symbol strcpy

…请删除ovzkernel …

yum remove ovzkernel

…并为您的架构安装ovzkernel包:

在x86_64系统上:

yum install ovzkernel.x86_64

在i686系统上:

yum install ovzkernel.i686

这也应该自动更新GRUB引导加载程序。 无论如何,我们应该打开/boot/grub/menu.lst ; 第一个内核节应该包含新的OpenVZ内核。 确保默认值为0 ,以便第一个内核(OpenVZ内核)自动引导,而不是默认的CentOS内核。

vi /boot/grub/menu.lst

# grub.conf generated by anaconda
#
# Note that you do not have to rerun grub after making changes to this file
# NOTICE:  You have a /boot partition.  This means that
#          all kernel and initrd paths are relative to /boot/, eg.
#          root (hd0,0)
#          kernel /vmlinuz-version ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00
#          initrd /initrd-version.img
#boot=/dev/sda
default=0
timeout=5
splashimage=(hd0,0)/grub/splash.xpm.gz
hiddenmenu
title OpenVZ (2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2)
        root (hd0,0)
        kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2 ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00 selinux=0
        initrd /initrd-2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2.img
title CentOS (2.6.18-274.el5)
        root (hd0,0)
        kernel /vmlinuz-2.6.18-274.el5 ro root=/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00
        initrd /initrd-2.6.18-274.el5.img

现在我们安装一些OpenVZ用户工具:

yum install vzctl vzquota

打开/etc/sysctl.conf并确保您具有以下设置:

vi /etc/sysctl.conf

[...]
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
net.ipv4.conf.default.proxy_arp = 0
net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 1
kernel.sysrq = 1
net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects = 1
net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects = 0
net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts=1
net.ipv4.conf.default.forwarding=1
[...]

如果需要修改/etc/sysctl.conf ,请运行

sysctl -p

之后。

如果虚拟机的IP地址与主机系统的IP地址不同,则以下步骤很重要。 如果不这样做,网络将无法在虚拟机中运行!

打开/etc/vz/vz.conf并将NEIGHBOUR_DEVS设置为全部 :

vi /etc/vz/vz.conf

[...]
NEIGHBOUR_DEVS=all
[...]

如果要使用OpenVZ,则需要禁用SELinux。 打开/ etc / sysconfig / selinux并将SELINUX的值设置为disabled :

vi /etc/sysconfig/selinux

# This file controls the state of SELinux on the system.
# SELINUX= can take one of these three values:
#       enforcing - SELinux security policy is enforced.
#       permissive - SELinux prints warnings instead of enforcing.
#       disabled - SELinux is fully disabled.
SELINUX=disabled
# SELINUXTYPE= type of policy in use. Possible values are:
#       targeted - Only targeted network daemons are protected.
#       strict - Full SELinux protection.
SELINUXTYPE=targeted

最后重新启动系统:

reboot

如果您的系统重新启动没有问题,那么一切都很好!

uname -r

并且您的新OpenVZ内核应显示:

[root@server1 ~]# uname -r
2.6.18-274.el5.028stab093.2
[root@server1 ~]#




(责任编辑:IT)
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